Filling the Void: Verne, Wells, and Lem
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Rose, Mark. "Filling the Void: Verne, Wells, and Lem." SFS #24, 8.1 (July 1981): 121-42.
Includes comments on the Martians' association with an indifferent cosmos and as a "metaphorical projection of the capitalistic industrial system of the late 19th century . . . conceived as a social machine" in H. G. Wells's War of the Worlds and on the "closed and safe spaces," necessarily mechanical, in Jules Verne, and in Stanislaw Lem's Solaris (130 and 132; cf. Wolfe on positive views of enclosure).